Post Japan-War Era (1945-1956)
The Congress of Labor Organizations (CLO) was established on March 16. 1945.
Formerly known as the Committee of Labor Organizations, the CLO was a
federation of labor organizations organized by former leaders of the Hukbo ng
Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon (Hukbalahap), which was forced to go underground
when the government declared Hukbalahap an illegal organization.
The Americans landed unopposed in Lingayen Gulf in Luzon on January 9, 1945
which was followed by the liberation of Manila after three weeks of fierce street
fighting with the Japanese. Many Filipino and American internees at the University
of Santo Tomas (UST) were freed.
The Americans made additional attacks on Japanese garrisons in Panay, Cebu,
Palawan, and Mindanao. The Japanese made their last stand in Northern Luzon
but General Yamashita, known as the Tiger of Malaya, finally surrendered in
Baguio on September 2, 1945
The country was severely devastated after the war. General Douglas MacArthur
turned over the civilian government to Sergio Osmeña Sr.
The Philippines joined the United Nations in 1945.
Manuel L. Roxas was elected first President, of what was to become the
independent Republic of the Philippines, in an election held on April 1946. The
Republic obtained its independence from the United States on July 4, 1946.
Roxas granted general amnesty to those who collaborated with the enemies
during the Japanese occupation.
In 1946 Bolinao Electronic Corporation (BEC) was established as an assembler
of radio transmitting equipment . James Lindenberg, owner of BEC, was first to
apply for license to establish a television station in 1949. The request was
granted on June 14, 1950 but because of logistical problems Lindenberg
branched to radio broadcasting instead.
President Roxas died of sudden heart attack, on April 15, 1948, cutting short his
presidency. He was succeeded, two days later, by his Vice-President Elpidio
Quirino, who became the 6th president of the country.
During his presidency, Quirino was unsuccessful in dealing with the increasing
Huk insurgency under its leader Luis Taruc. At the height of its strength, it was
estimated that the Huk movement had about 15,000 armed followers.
His presidency was marked by postwar reconstruction efforts and general
economic programs, supported by increased U.S. economic aid. However, the
persistent Huk insurgency, rural poverty, and widespread graft and corruption
tainted his administration. Although ill, Quirino ran for re-election in 1953 but he
was overwhelmingly defeated by Ramon Magsaysay.
BEC changed its corporate name to Alto Broadcasting System (ABS).
Ramon Magsaysay ran for president under the Nacionalista Party and was
elected by an overwhelming2/3 of the votes on a populist platform supported by
the United States. He became the 7th president of the country. He popularized the
Barong-Tagalog when he wore one during his swearing ceremonies as president.
He pursued many small infrastructure projects, instituted sweeping economic
reforms, and made advances in land reform programs - moves that made him
widely popular among ordinary people. But his push to relieve population
congestion in the North by resettling poor people to the less populated South
heightened religious hostilities among Catholics and Muslims.
The first fully-licensed commercial television station, DZAQ-TV, owned by Alto
Broadcasting System (ABS), began operations in October 23, 1953.
Huk leader Luis Taruk surrendered to the government on May, 1954 which
contributed to the decline of the Huk movement.
The Lopez family acquired a radio-TV franchise from Congress. They established
the Chronicle Broadcasting Network (CBN) in 1956.